A manicure is a cosmetic beauty cure for fingernails and hands.
A manicure can treat just the hands, just the nails, or both. A
standard manicure usually includes filing and shaping of the nails
and the application of polish. Some specialty manicures, such as
the French Manicure, may also be offered.
Treatments for hands usually
include soaking in a softening substance
and application of hand lotion. A similar treatment performed on
the feet is a pedicure. The word "manicure" comes from
the Latin manus, meaning "hand," and cura meaning "care".
Various services for nails can be provided, such as the application of artificial nails such as nail tips, acrylics and man-made nail gels. A manicurist can also apply treatments
to real nails, such as filing, polishing, and painting. Fancier manicures
include painting pictures or designs on the nails or applying small decals
or imitation jewels.
In many areas, manicurists are
regulated and must be licensed. Because the skin is being manipulated and sometimes trimmed, and because there is a risk of infection when tools are used on multiple people, proper cleanliness is critical.
It began 5000 years ago. In India, henna was used for manicure.The term
mendhi, used synonymously for henna, derives from the Sanskrit mehandika.
Much of the modern revival of henna derives from its popularity in India.
A manicurist prepares for a customer by ensuring that the working area and tools are germ-free and conveniently located. This might include sanitizing the working surface, such as a table top, placing clean metal implements into a jar with sanitize liquid, and having sanitized towels and new tools such as orange sticks and emery boards arranged neatly near the working area. Soaking liquids are not reused, and all water used can be
boiled or otherwise sanitized. These preparations prevent the possible
spread of disease. Proper lighting is also important.
There is a wide variety of services available from manicurists, and each
manicurist might have a specialty. A reputable manicurist ensures that
a client knows what services are available and explains the procedures
Normally a manicure starts with the washing and sanitizing of the subject's
hands, preferably with jewelry removed. Old nail polish or artificial
nails are removed with chemical nail polish remover. The hands can be
cleaned with soap and hot water, or by scrubbing with a bath salt and
rinsing with hot water. The salt scrub has the advantage of removing dead skin cells via scuff. The hands are then dried with a clean towel.
Fingernail Trimming :
The fingernails are then trimmed and filed to the desired length and
shape using fingernail file. Metal files can be used for rapid removal of nail material; however this can tension the nails. Professionally, fine
glass files are preferred. Disposable two-sided emery boards can also
be used. These are disposable paper boards coated with emery, an abrasive.
Usually one side of the board is rougher than the other.
Proper filing technique starts with the file at the outer edge of the
nail, moving towards the center. This is repeated from the other side
of the nail to the center. The file should not be moved back and forth
in a saw-like motion.
Cuticle Care :
Hands are then soaked in water to soften the skin, particularly the cuticles.
If needed, a cream, oil, or chemical cuticle remover can also be applied
to soften cuticles and detach them from the top of the fingernail. The
cuticles are then pushed back with a cuticle pusher.
A cuticle pusher
is simply a wooden stick with a flat end, sometimes wrapped in cotton.
Metal cuticle pushers should be used with great care, as they can damage
the fingernail matrix. Orangewood is the preferred material because of
Some manicurists offer to trim ragged cuticles with cuticle shears, but this varies by manicurist. Some believe that live cuticles should
not be cut, because the cuticle acts as protection from bacterial infection.
Dead, loose skin can be safely removed, however. Some customers prefer
not to have their skin cut at all, even if it is dead. However, these
strips of loose skin can become hangnails, which if present can end up
ripping the skin, which can then lead to infection.
Nail Care :
Fingernails are then polished with a polishing board. A polishing board
is a board made of hard foam, paper, or plastic. A softer foam layer is
added to each side, and fine polishing surfaces are placed on the foam.
One side is for the rough polish, and the other side is split into a finer
polish and an ultra fine polish to make the nails shine.
In most cases, the manicurist also
applies at least one layer of nail polish, if only a simple clear polish.
Some clear polish is meant to reinforce weak nails. The fingernails should
be dry before sealing.
For colored nails, the procedure takes longer,
as the manicurist must apply and allow to dry at least three layers: the
(usually clear) base coat, the color coat, and the final (also usually
clear) top coat. More layers can be applied, but the drying time increases
with every coat.
Some manicurists are opposed to
all nail polishes, including nail polish remover, because of the chemicals
used in them. These can include ethyl acetate, toluene, formaldehyde,
dibutyl phthalate (DBP), or other petroleum solvents.
A manicure is usually finished with a hand massage using hand lotion or
oils. What follows is an outline of a typical hand-massage session.
To Begin :
forearms by removing any jewellery and pushing up long sleeves if necessary.
arms across table comfortably.
For Each Arm :
Apply a liberal
amount of massage lotion on customer's arm.
Use rotary movements
beginning at the elbow going down towards the wrist. Slide up the arm.
Repeat three times. Flip arm and repeat on the
Wring arm going
up, slide down arm; repeat three times. Flip arm; repeat three times.
Hack arm up
and down arm both sides; repeat three times.
around both sides of wrist.
arm upright, elbow on the table hold hands, and see-saw customer's hands/wrist
Begin at the
top of the wrist and use rotary motions going down the thumb and little
finger then go back to wrist, then rotate down
next two fingers. Repeat movements down middle finger, pilfering the finger tips as you slide off the finger.
Rotate and flex
each finger one at a time.
Ensure all lotion
applied has been absorbed by arm.
Sometimes the hands can be dipped in melted paraffin or wax. This is meant to impart heat to the hand for the purposes of soothing the skin and making it better able to absorb lotion, which is sometimes rubbed on the hand before submersion into the paraffin. The hand is usually dipped more than once to allow a thicker wax coat to form, making the coating stays warm for longer and less likely to break or tear impulsively. After the hands
have been dipped in the wax, they are wrapped in either plastic or tin
foil, then covered with cloth to retain warmth.
Hot Oil Manicure
A hot Oil Manicure is a specific type of manicure that cleans and neatens
the cuticles and softens them with oil.